[ti:US Official: We Have the Tools to End AIDS Now] [by:www.51voa.com] [00:00.00]更多听力请访问51VOA.COM [00:01.80]Friday, December 1st marks the 30th World AIDS Day. [00:07.72]One aim of the event is to show support for people living with HIV, [00:14.72]the virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or AIDS. [00:21.76]Another aim is to remember the people [00:24.95]who have died from conditions related to AIDS. [00:29.84]Since 1984, about 35 million people [00:34.60]have died from HIV and AIDS-related diseases. [00:40.20]This number makes "it one of the most destructive pandemics in history," [00:46.04]according to the World AIDS Day website. [00:49.92]The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, or UNAIDS, [00:56.56]released a report before the World Day observances on Friday. [01:02.84]The report noted progress in containing HIV. [01:07.92]It said 21 million people who have the virus are getting treatment. [01:14.28]That number is more than half of all people living with HIV. [01:20.44]The UN's goal is to end the AIDS pandemic by 2030. [01:26.36]American Anthony Fauci has been working [01:29.72]in the fight against AIDS since the 1980's. [01:34.44]At that time, an HIV infection was considered a death sentence. [01:40.92]Now people with the virus can expect [01:44.04]to have a normal life if they get treatment. [01:48.24]Fauci heads the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [01:53.92]at the United States government's National Institutes of Health. [01:59.24]He says that we have "the ability to end the pandemic as we know it." [02:05.24]"What I mean is that we have extraordinarily effective drugs. [02:09.20]But recently those drugs have been shown [02:12.04]– over the past few years – not only to save lives of the people [02:15.28]who take the drugs, but also to bring the level of virus [02:19.60]in an infected person so low, below detectable level, [02:24.08]that it makes it virtually impossible for that person [02:27.44]to transmit the virus to someone else." [02:30.68]However, people taking medications face the same problems [02:36.16]as anyone else who takes medicines on a daily basis. [02:41.16]Not everyone remembers to take their medications, [02:45.12]and doctors' prescriptions often need to be renewed. [02:49.88]Sixteen million people infected with HIV are not getting treatment. [02:56.20]Many in this group do not know they have the disease, [03:00.68]so they continue to spread the virus. [03:04.16]Some of them are lacking in healthcare, [03:07.32]so they don't get tested. [03:09.68]UNAIDS reports that some 1.8 million people [03:14.13]became infected with HIV in 2016. [03:19.20]That estimate is 39 percent lower [03:22.64]than the number of newly-infected people in the late 1990s. [03:28.64]In African countries south of the Sahara Desert, [03:32.72]new HIV infections have fallen by 48 percent since 2000. [03:39.96]However, the report notes that new HIV infections in Eastern Europe [03:46.36]and Central Asia have risen by 60 percent since 2010. [03:52.56]In addition, AIDS-related deaths have increased by 27 percent. [03:59.32]Even with the tools we have, Fauci does not see an end [04:04.32]to the AIDS pandemic without an HIV vaccine. [04:09.60]Several years ago, researchers tested an experimental AIDS vaccine in Thailand. [04:17.48]That vaccine was 31 percent effective. [04:22.12]By comparison, the measles vaccine protects [04:25.88]up to 99 percent of those who get vaccinated. [04:30.92]Fauci told VOA he is not sure if scientists [04:35.24]can develop an AIDS vaccine that would be as effective. [04:40.04]But he adds that even a vaccine with 50 or 60 percent effectiveness [04:46.64]combined with other measures "could turn around the trajectory [04:51.36]of the epidemic and essentially end it as we know it." [04:55.60]Another vaccine trial is taking place in South Africa. [05:01.08]The results will not be available until 2019 at the earliest, [05:07.00]and there is no way of telling if that vaccine [05:10.40]will be good enough to help end AIDS. [05:14.28]For now, testing, anti-AIDS drugs, and changes in behavior [05:20.28]are three tools to limit the spread of AIDS, according to UNAIDS. [05:26.20]Behavioral change includes limiting the number of sexual partners, [05:31.20]using clean needles and syringes, and using condoms during sexual activity. [05:38.00]Both Fauci and UNAIDS say ending AIDS is up to the world community [05:44.60]– and how much effort and money it is willing to use toward the goal. [05:50.36]I'm John Russell. 更多听力请访问51VOA.COM